Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
As an advanced practice nurse assisting physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders, it is important to not only understand the impact of disorders on the body, but also the impact of drug treatments on the body. The relationships between drugs and the body can be described by pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
Pharmacokinetics describes what the body does to the drug through absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, whereas pharmacodynamics describes what the drug does to the body.
When selecting drugs and determining dosages for patients, it is essential to consider individual patient factors that might impact the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes. These patient factors include genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, behavior (i.e., diet, nutrition, smoking, alcohol, illicit drug abuse), and/or pathophysiological changes due to disease. Individual patient factors that may impact the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes must be considered when selecting drugs and determining dosages for patients. Genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, behavior (e.g., diet, nutrition, smoking, alcohol, and illicit drug abuse), and/or pathophysiological changes caused by disease are examples of patient factors.
For this Discussion, you reflect on a case from your past clinical experiences and consider how a patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes may alter his or her response to a drug.
Review the Resources for this module and consider the principles of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
Reflect on your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practices from the last 5 years and think about how pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors altered his or her anticipated response to a drug.
Consider factors that might have influenced the patient’s pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes, such as genetics (including pharmacogenetics), gender, ethnicity, age, behavior, and/or possible pathophysiological changes due to disease.
Think about a personalized plan of care based on these influencing factors and patient history in your case study.
By Day 3 of Week 1
Post a description of the patient case from your experiences, observations, and/or clinical practice from the last 5 years. Then, describe factors that might have influenced pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic processes of the patient you identified. Finally, explain details of the personalized plan of care that you would develop based on influencing factors and patient history in your case. Be specific and provide examples
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Amoxicillin
Pharmacokinetics is the examination of how the body responds to drugs through metabolism, absorption, and distribution. Pharmacodynamics is the study of what the drugs to the body. Both pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics describe the type of relationship between the body and medicines (Ansari et al., 2016). This analysis aims to examine the patient’s drug effect experience, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics response of the patient to drugs. The review focuses on the intake of Amoxicillin, which mainly treats bacterial infections on the human body.
The pharmacodynamics of Amoxicillin is that it inhibits penicillin, which binds proteins in the body. The effect of this is that this leads to an increase in autolytic enzymes which prevent the synthesis of cell walls (Sarkar et al., 2017). The effects may occur for a very long duration, depending on how the nurses administer the drug. In most cases, the drug is administered twice daily in the human body. If there is an overdose, patients need to get proper counseling y a medical practitioner who will examine the body and advise on the possible adverse effects.
Amoxicillin’s pharmacodynamics are that it inhibits penicillin, which binds proteins in the body. This has the effect of increasing autolytic enzymes, which prevent the synthesis of cell walls (Sarkar et al., 2017). Depending on how the nurses administer the drug, the effects may last for a very long time. In most cases, the drug is administered to the human body twice daily. If an overdose occurs, patients must receive proper counseling from a medical practitioner who will examine the body and advise on the potential side effects.
Conclusively, patients using Amoxicillin need to administer with the correct doses. Failure to do so results in vomiting, diarrhea, hyperactivity, acute renal failure, and drowsiness. All medications must be prescribed by a qualified physician to avoid an overdose.
Ansari, J., Carvalho, B., Shafer, S. L., & Flood, P. (2016). Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs commonly used in pregnancy and parturition. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 122(3), 786-804.
Sarkar, P., Yarlagadda, V., Ghosh, C., & Haldar, J. (2017). A review of cell wall synthesis inhibitors with an emphasis on glycopeptide antibiotics. MedChemComm, 8(3), 516-533.
Rocha, M. B. S., De Nucci, G., Lemos, F. N., Babadopulos, R. F. D. A. L., Rohleder, A. V. P., Fechine, F. V., … & de Moraes, M. E. A. (2019). Impact of bariatric surgery on the pharmacokinetics parameters of Amoxicillin. Obesity surgery, 29(3), 917-927.