Operant vs Classical Conditioning
Classical and operant conditioning are two important principles central to behavioral psychology. There are similarities between classical and operant conditioning. Both result in learning and both imply that a subject may adapt to their surroundings.
However, the processes are also fairly distinct. To understand how each of these behavior modification approaches might be applied, it is also vital to grasp how classical and operant conditioning vary from one another.
Classical conditioning vs. operant conditioning
Let’s have a look at some of the most basic differences.
Classical Conditioning sFirst described by Ivan Pavlov, a Russian physiologist
Focuses on involuntary, automatic behaviors
Involves placing a neutral signal before a reflex
Operant Conditioning sFirst described by B. F. Skinner, an American psychologist
Involves giving reinforcement or punishment after an action
Focuses on enhancing or diminishing voluntary behaviors
Even if you are not a psychology student, you have probably at least heard about Pavlov’s dogs. In his famous experiment, Ivan Pavlov found dogs begin to salivate in reaction to a tone after the sound had frequently been matched with presenting food. Pavlov instantly concluded that this was a learnt reaction and set out to further examine the conditioning process.
Classical conditioning is a procedure that involves building an association between a naturally existing stimulus and a previously neutral one. Sounds complex, so let’s break it down:
The classical conditioning method includes combining a previously neutral input (such as the sound of a bell) with an unconditioned stimulus (the taste of food) (the taste of food).
This unconditioned stimulation naturally and automatically promotes salivating as a response to the meal, which is known as the unconditioned response. After associating the neutral stimuli and the unconditioned stimulus, the sound of the bell alone will start to induce salivating as a reaction.
The sound of the bell is now known as the conditioned stimulus and salivating in reaction to the bell is known as the conditioned response.
A dog doesn’t need to be educated to salivate when it detects food; this occurs naturally. The meal is the naturally occurring stimulus. If you rang a bell every time you provided the dog with food, an association would be developed between the food and the bell. Eventually, the bell alone, a.k.a. the conditioned stimulus would come to induce the salivation response.
Classical conditioning is much more than simply a fundamental word used to describe a process of learning; it can also explain how numerous behaviors arise that can damage your health. Consider how a harmful habit might form. Even if you have been working out and eating sensibly, midnight overeating keeps tripping up your dieting attempts.
Thanks to classical conditioning, you might have established the habit of running to the kitchen for a snack every time a commercial comes on while you are watching your favorite television program.
While commercial breaks were formerly a neutral stimulus, regular pairing with an unconditioned stimulus (eating a wonderful food) has changed the advertisements into a conditioned stimulus. Now every time you see a commercial, you crave a sweet treat.
Classical Conditioning: In Depth sOperant Conditioning
Operant conditioning (or instrumental conditioning) focuses on employing either reinforcement or punishment to promote or decrease a behavior. Through this process, an association is built between the behavior and the consequences of that behavior. 1
Imagine that a trainer is trying to teach a dog to fetch a ball. When the dog successfully chases and picks up the ball, the dog receives praise as a reward. When the animal fails to fetch the ball, the trainer withholds the praise. Eventually, the dog builds a link between the behavior of fetching the ball and obtaining the desired reward.
For example, assume that a schoolteacher punishes a pupil for talking out of turn by not letting the student go outside for recess. As a result, the student builds a relationship between the action (talking out of turn) and the consequence (not being able to go outside for recess) (not being able to go outside for recess). As a result, the harmful behavior lessens.
A lot of factors can influence how soon a reaction is learned and the strength of the response. How often the response is rewarded, termed as a schedule of reinforcement, can play a key impact in how quickly the behavior is learned2 and how strong the response develops. The sort of reinforcer employed might also have an impact on the reaction.
For example, whereas a variable-ratio schedule will result in a high and stable rate of response,3 a variable-interval schedule will lead to a sluggish and steady response rate.
In addition to being used to train people and animals to participate in new behaviors, operant conditioning can also be used to assist people eradicate unwanted ones. Using a system of rewards and penalties, people might learn to overcome harmful behaviors that might have a negative impact on their health such as smoking or overeating. 4
Operant Conditioning: In Depth sOperant vs. Classical Conditioning
One of the simplest ways to recall the differences between classical and operant conditioning is to focus on whether the behavior is involuntary or voluntary.
Classical conditioning entails associating an automatic response and a stimulus, while operant conditioning is about associating a voluntary behavior with a consequence.
In operant conditioning, the learner is also rewarded with incentives,5 while classical conditioning contains no such enticements. Also, remember that classical conditioning is passive on the part of the learner, while operant conditioning demands the student to actively participate and execute some type of activity in order to be rewarded or penalized.
For operant conditioning to function, the subject must first demonstrate a behavior that may then be either rewarded or punished. Classical conditioning, on the other hand, involves developing an association with some sort of previously naturally occurring event. 1
Operant vs. Classical Conditioning Examples
Today, both classical and operant conditioning are applied for a variety of objectives by teachers, parents, psychologists, animal trainers, and many others.
In animal training, a trainer might apply classical conditioning by repeatedly associating the sound of a clicker with the taste of food. Eventually, the sound of the clicker alone will begin to create the same response that the taste of food would.
In a classroom context, a teacher might apply operant conditioning by distributing tokens as rewards for excellent behavior.
6 Students can then turn in these tokens to obtain some form of reward, such as a gift or more playtime. In each of these circumstances, the purpose of conditioning is to generate some form of change in behavior. Psychology essay writing help. Dissertation WritersMore Assessment Samples: Prepare a 3-4 page analysis considering several possibl »Leadership is frequently regarded as an essential skill in any firm