Database Models, Languages and Architecture
The Database Models, Languages and Architecture
The current database that your company is using keeps track of all of the customers and suppliers as well as products offered for sale, but the current environment has all of this data spread out across multiple different databases and it is difficult to see a complete picture of the environment. You have been tasked to consolidate the environment into a single database environment with the end goal of adding a data warehouse for the company.
Your manager is excited with the project description, is anxious to have a new database built for the company, and more excited that at the end of the project he will also have a data warehouse to help make strategic decisions. To start, your manager would like to understand the benefits of following a formal design methodology, especially with respect to database design. Describe how and why the company can benefit from spending time planning at the beginning of the project, instead of just jumping in and developing the applications to meet the perceived needs. To ensure that you give the best response, you choose to describe the 3-level ANSI-SPARC architecture and want to make sure you discuss how the use of this will promote data independence to save time in the long run.
You also want to take this opportunity to answer any potential questions about personnel needs with this new database environment. Describe the roles of a data administrator (DA) and a database administrator (DBA); describe the job functions of each and how the tasks they each perform differ. Would you recommend that your company has one person to perform both tasks, or should it hire two people?
Your paper should contain the following information:
Describe the 3-level architecture.
Describe data independence.
Talk about the differences between a DA and a DBA.
Discuss the pros and cons of having a separate DA and DBA or the need for 1 person doing it all.
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Database Models, Languages and Architecture
There are three levels of the architecture of database management systems which includes the physical level, the conceptual level, and the external level.
The physical level outlines the physical storage of the data in a database. It is the internal level of the database. The physical level is closer to the storage of data in the system. Data is stored in bits which are accessed by the physical address. Data is stored at high levels in large storage files in different data types.
The conceptual level
The conceptual level gives a description of the database for many users and it is one of the data models. It represents all the contents of the database. It does not show how data in the data is stored in the database.
The external level deals with data that is accessed by the end users. The level is located closest to the users for easy access. The external level is used to specify the group of people to access the data. This level is called the view level database. The level is used to define how is accessed depending on the requirement of an individual.
Planning is used to specify the requirements of the project and hence important in proper utilization of resources.
A database contains different types of data and users that access the data. The data describes more about other data which is called metadata. The metadata is used in easy retrieval and access to the data. The process of updating and modifying data is not easily carried out in the metadata. There is the advancement of the creation of modern databases that provide more information and meets most of the requests by the users. Data independence is either in the logical data or physical data. Logical data independence provides information on how data is managed in the database. It provides the relationships between different tables in the database. On the other hand, the physical data independence describes the storage of data in a logical way and in form of bits. The physical data provides change on the physical data without interfering with the logic of data. Therefore, modifications are carried out on physical data by proper utilization of new storage, modifying data in the storage and altering the files using different techniques.
Data administrator is a person that controls all the data in a database while Database Administrator is a person who designs and defines the access of the database.
Data administrator specifies the different needs of the data that is stored in the database by considering the requirements of an organization while Database Administrator provides the support necessary for the implementation of the database.
DA mostly concentrates on analysis and gathering of data while DBA concentrates on development and testing of the software development.
DA is a person who has well-informed knowledge concerning data of an organization while DBA has good knowledge of databases.
The pros of having a separate DA and DBA is the reduction in the cost of labor by having one person to manage is more cost-effective and reduction in duplication of duties. Other advantages include easy decision making and effective management. On the other hand, the cons of having a separate DA and DBA are lack of different ways of ideas that are provided by different people and there is no separation of duties.
Tutorial point. ( 2018) Data independence: Retrieved from https://www.tutorialspoint.com/dbms/dbms_data_independence.htm
Tutorial link ( 2018) DA and DBA Retrieved from https://tutorialink.com/dbms/da-and-dba.dbms