Write a paper (2,000-2,500 words) in which you apply the concepts of epidemiology and nursing research to a communicable disease. Refer to “Communicable Disease Chain,” “Chain of Infection,” and the CDC website for assistance when completing this assignment.
Communicable Disease Selection
5. Hepatitis B
Epidemiology Paper Requirements
1. Describe the chosen communicable disease, including causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment, and the demographic of interest (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence). Is this a reportable disease? If so, provide details about reporting time, whom to report to, etc. Describe the communicable disease you’ve chosen, including its causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment, and who it affects (mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence). Does this count as a disease? If so, tell them when and to whom they should report, etc.
2. Describe the social determinants of health and explain how those factors contribute to the development of this disease.
3. Discuss the epidemiologic triangle as it relates to the communicable disease you have selected. Include the host factors, agent factors (presence or absence), and environmental factors. Are there any special considerations or notifications for the community, schools, or general population?
4. Explain the role of the community health nurse (case finding, reporting, data collection, data analysis, and follow-up) and why demographic data are necessary to the health of the community.
5. Identify at least one national agency or organization that addresses the communicable disease chosen and describe how the organizations contribute to resolving or reducing the impact of disease.
6. Discuss a global implication of the disease. How is this addressed in other countries or cultures? Is this disease endemic to a particular area? Provide an example.
A minimum of three peer-reviewed or professional references is required.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
A communicable disease is usually caused by a microorganism. One organism can spread a communicable disease, which is typically brought on by a microbe like a bacterium, virus, or fungus.
The spread of contagious illnesses
It is possible for an infectious disease to spread from one creature to another and may also be referred to as an infectious illness.
An organism cannot transmit a non-communicable disease, which is typically brought on by a person’s lifestyle or inherited genetic defects.
A person is said to be healthy if they are free of both sorts of illness.
Disease has an impact on society since sick people may not be able to work and may need care.
Communicable Diseases’ Symptoms
The symptoms of contagious diseases can differ. Some of them may be minor, while others may be serious and fatal. Everything depends on the infectious agent that causes the sickness and the kind of disease it creates.
For instance, you can get a stuffy nose, a headache, and perhaps a fever if you come into touch with the common cold-causing rhinovirus. Sometimes it goes away after a few days. However, HIV impairs your immune system and causes serious symptoms. Regular drugs can be used to treat it by a medical professional.
The most typical signs of contagious diseases are:
Skin rashes or lesions
Typically, a cluster of risk factors is formed when a few separate risk factors interact with one another. among the prevalent risk factors are;
1. Improper Hygiene
Personal hygiene, sanitization, and handwashing practices emerge as the crucial components that significantly reduce the risk of communicable diseases. Diarrheal illnesses and other communicable diseases might occur from poor hygiene and sanitization.
2. A lack of nutrition
Nutritional factors considerably increase the shedding and transmission rates of communicable diseases as well as the susceptibility to those diseases. Consuming contaminated food increases the risk of contracting infectious diseases.
Disease outbreaks can be brought on by environmental risk factors such as weather and climate conditions like cold and dust storms. Outside of the host, a pathogen’s infectiousness is influenced by a variety of environmental elements, including temperature, moisture, and UV light. Pathogen abundance and survival are directly impacted by seasonal environmental variations.
4. Congested Areas
Infections such diarrheal diseases are caused by hygiene-related disorders that are brought on by overcrowding. Additionally, crowded areas raise the danger of spreading contagious diseases like the measles and other contagious disorders. Crowded areas with inadequate ventilation and high humidity promote the transmission of airborne droplets from person to person.
5. Other Elements
The emergence of communicable diseases is caused by a number of factors, including environmental circumstances, access to healthcare services, inadequate reaction to the first spread of infection, etc. Sometimes, the various risk factors intersect to produce complicated emergencies that increase risk and complicate disease transmission channels.
Also see: Potential Application of PRP Therapy for Orthopaedic Conditions and Sports Injuries
the root causes of contagious diseases
Infectious agents are the root cause of communicable diseases. These pathogens include bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites.
Viruses are microorganisms that can infect your body’s cells and grow in number to harm you. The protein composition of the cell may be harmed or altered. Measles, rubella, chickenpox (varicella), herpes zoster, the common cold, HIV, and many more are examples of common viral illnesses.
Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that proliferate rapidly. The majority of bodily infections are brought on by bacteria like streptococci, staphylococci, e. coli, etc. Food poisoning, strep throat, and urinary tract infections are the most typical bacterial infections.
Fungi – A fungus is a microorganism that targets the severely debilitated human body. Aspergillus and candida are the two fungus species that are most prevalent. The improper control of these fungus can result in infections that are fatal.
Animals and plants that survive by consuming other living things are known as parasites. Infections from parasites can occur in contaminated waters. An instance of a parasite-based infection is malaria.
Different channels are used by communicable illnesses to spread from one person to another. It can happen by bites from insects, direct contact with the infected source, indirect contact, or contact with contaminated objects.
When you come into direct contact with a sick person, direct transmission happens. It can happen through physical contact, kissing, or sexual activity.
When you touch a shared surface that ill people have touched, indirect transmission occurs. Your hands can allow infectious microbes to enter your body and spread sickness.
Diseases can be brought on by insect or animal bites because they are repositories for infectious agents that can mix with blood and spread throughout the body.
The infectious agent might enter your body through contaminated food or water that you consume.
To stop the spread of communicable illnesses, healthcare systems, the government, and individuals should all take responsible action. Here are some pointers to assist stop the spread of infectious diseases:
Maintain hygiene, properly clean your hands, utensils, and food before handling or preparing it.
Always consume fresh produce, especially fruits.
Eat less of the staples.
Before and after meals, wash your hands with soap and water.
After using the restroom, when traveling, after sneezing or coughing, and after contacting your pets, you should wash your hands.
Doorknobs, doorbells, and other surfaces should be cleaned and disinfected frequently.
Cover your mouth and nose when you cough and sneeze.
Don’t exchange personal stuff like towels, underwear, razors, and toothbrushes.
Get immunized in accordance with the recommended schedule.
If you’re sick, stay at home and avoid your family to stop the spread of the illness.
Digital healthcare solutions’ role in preventing the spread of infectious diseases
Digital technologies are developing a system of assistance to slow the spread of these contagious diseases. In population monitoring, case identification, contact tracing, and the assessment of disease propagation, digital therapeutic devices are essential tools.
The management of healthcare will increasingly be done digitally. Future infectious disease management and control will be improved thanks to the strategies developed by digital healthcare companies. Therefore, it is necessary to include modern software solutions like big data and artificial intelligence into the current public healthcare systems.
Infectious diseases that spread from one person to another are known as communicable diseases. It can cause a number of infectious diseases and be spread through direct contact, airborne particles, or tainted food and drink. These illnesses occasionally result in serious life-threatening consequences despite having minor symptoms.
Preventing the risk factors should be the first step in preventing the spread of communicable illnesses. And take precautions like maintaining a clean atmosphere, using adequate sanitization, avoiding crowded areas if there is a chance that an infection may spread, etc. To stop the transmission of a communicable disease, a proper vaccination should also be received. A person with an infectious disease must also be kept isolated in order to stop the disease from spreading.
Recognizing the significance of digital healthcare solutions in the area of communicable illnesses is also necessary. With a digitalized healthcare system, we can improve our ability to handle pandemics and be better equipped to fight infectious diseases in the future.
Commonly Transmitted Illnesses
Diseases that spread from one person to another are referred to as communicable diseases. Close touch, droplets, or other bodily fluids can spread these infections. When someone sneezes or coughs, they can potentially spread through the air.
The world’s most widespread contagious illnesses are:
HIV/AIDS: The human immunodeficiency virus is what causes the disease (HIV). The virus damages immune system cells, making it more difficult for the body to fight off diseases.
Although there is no vaccine or cure for HIV/AIDS, there are medications that can be used to keep the infection under control and halt the progression of AIDS.
The most typical signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS include fever and a rash. Additional signs include:
Fever or a sickness with an inexplicable fever
a skin rash with any of the following features:
On the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, there may be tiny red bumps called papules or bigger flat patches called plaques.
tender areas of red or purple (purpura), frequently on the groin
little facial red dots
substantial areas affecting the trunk and limbs
elevated lumps that might resemble insect bites (kaposi sarcoma)
Swollen glands in the neck or the groin area, or enlarged lymph nodes there
Contagious viruses include the coronavirus. The virus can spread to other people through coughing or sneezing from an infected person.
Some of the symptoms of coronavirus include the ones listed below:
Rhinoviruses: A family of viruses known as rhinoviruses is responsible for the common cold. The Greek words rhino, which means nose, and virus, which means poison, are the source of the name rhinovirus. The poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and echovirus are also members of the enterovirus family, which also includes these viruses.
The direct touch of nasal or throat droplets from an infected person is how rhinoviruses are spread. By coming into contact with contaminated things or surfaces, they can also spread indirectly.
Rhinovirus symptoms include:
Throat discomfort Fever Headache
Influenza: An infection of the respiratory system brought on by the influenza virus. Droplets from coughing, sneezing, and even talking are the main ways that influenza is passed from person to person.
There are numerous strains of the influenza virus, which can be divided into three groups: types A, B, and C. The most typical cause of influenza in humans is the influenza A virus. H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, and other influenza A subtypes can be distinguished from one another by the various surface proteins or antigens they possess.
Those who have contracted the virus frequently experience
They might also have a runny nose, and some might throw up or have diarrhea. Typically, these symptoms continue for 2 to 7 days before going away on their own.
An infectious disease that primarily affects the lungs is tuberculosis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacteria that causes tuberculosis. Although the germs typically target the lungs, they can also harm other organs like the brain, kidneys, and spine.
Tuberculosis signs and symptoms include:
Having a fever
persistent cough and sputum that is blood-tinted
Loss of weight
sweats at night
People who are in close touch with someone who has TB are most likely to contract the disease, which is transferred through airborne droplets from coughing or sneezing.
Ringworm: A fungus known as a “dermatophyte” is the source of the fungal infection known as ringworm. It can spread through direct physical contact with an infected person or animal, as well as through contact with contaminated objects such contaminated bedding, clothing, and furniture. Sharing intimate objects like combs and brushes can potentially transmit ringworm.
If you have been in contact with soil or water, the fungus typically begins on your hands or feet since it requires wet skin to survive and thrive. If you don’t wash your hands after engaging in outdoor play, ringworm may develop on your hands and subsequently spread to your face, scalp, or genital region.
Red, circular spots of skin with a raised, scaly border that might be dry or damp are signs of ringworm. Hair and nails can also get ringworm.
Plasmodium: The pseudopodia, which resemble fingers, are used by the plasmodium to move. It’s possible for the plasmodium to fragment into smaller pieces, which can then recombine to generate new plasmodia.
The asexual reproductive organ of the malaria parasite “Plasmodium falciparum” is called a plasmodium. It consists of several tiny cells called trophozoites.
Untreated malaria is a contagious illness that can be fatal. It is a parasitic infection spread by mosquitoes.
Children’s malaria symptoms are challenging to recognize because they don’t resemble the flu and can be mistaken for those of other illnesses. To avoid complications and mortality from malaria, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial.
The best defense against malaria is to avoid being bitten by mosquitoes.
Lyme illness: A blacklegged tick carrying the Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria is the source of the Lyme disease, which is contagious. Through a bite or occasionally through close touch with an infected animal, the bacteria can enter the skin.
Individuals with Lyme disease frequently experience
If mistreated, individuals could potentially experience more severe symptoms like joint pain, heart palpitations, and tingling or numbness in their limbs.
A bulls-eye rash that develops 3–30 days after infection at the location of the tick bite is the most typical sign of Lyme disease.
Infectious illnesses that can spread from one person or animal to another are known as communicable diseases. Bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites may be responsible for these illnesses.
There are two categories of communicable diseases: those that are “direct contact” diseases (spread directly by coming into touch with an infected person or animal) and those that are “indirect contact” diseases (transmitted indirectly by consuming contaminated food or water).
Numerous factors contribute to the spread of communicable diseases, but these diseases can be avoided by taking the necessary safety measures.
The transmission of a disease from one person to another is typically the cause of communicable diseases.
Physical contact, such as hand shaking or kissing, as well as coming into contact with contaminated things like cups, door handles, or toys, can spread the virus.
The viruses that cause colds and the flu are the most prevalent infectious diseases that we hear about.
Opportunistic infections, often known as communicable diseases, are brought on by internal parasites and bacteria. These opportunistic infections could develop if the immune system is already compromised by a disease or treatment. communicable viral illnesses
Microorganism Spread Control/Prevention/Treatment
HIV (leading to AIDS) (leading to AIDS)
during intercourse, bodily fluids are exchanged. contaminated blood Precaution: Use a condom. Drug users don’t exchange needles. Drugs are now used to treat the illness.
Flu shots are an airborne prevention measure.
HPV, or Human Papillomavirus
immunization against HPV (offered to 12–13 years old girls and boys). prevents cervical cancer in women and girls.
How Can Transmission Be Treated and Prevented?
The microorganisms that cause communicable diseases are spread from person to person. They can disperse on surfaces, in the sea, or via the air.
Antibiotics and vaccinations can be used to treat infectious disorders. Vaccines stop infectious pathogens from infecting a person while antibiotics kill them inside the body. Preventing the spread of contagious diseases is the goal of treatment.
It is crucial to remember that communicable disease transmission can be stopped by adhering to a few straightforward rules.
Regular hand washing with soap and water is the first and most crucial rule. Your hands will be largely sanitized of germs after doing this.
Avoiding close contact with anyone who have a contagious disease or who have recently had one is the second rule.
The third rule is to avoid sick animals, including cats, dogs, monkeys, rats, bats, and birds, as they may be carrying diseases that can be spread to people.
Preventing the spread of contagious diseases is the goal of treatment. There are various strategies to stop the transmission of contagious diseases, including hand washing, donning masks and gloves, and remaining at home when ill.